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References and Research

1. Support microvascular health, blood flow and oxygen to the brain (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

2. Improve energy production in brain cells for thinking and remembering (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

3. Help maintain cellular integrity and fluidity to allow nutrients in and to keep toxins out (11)

4. Protect against free radicals or oxidation (a type of rusting associated with brain aging and cognitive decline) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)

5. Reduce damaging inflammation known to impair memory and accelerate decline (19) (20) (21)

6. Protect against stress and cortisol, which is known to cause damage to the hippocampus (the memory "switchboard" of the brain) (22) (23) (24) (25)

7. Reduce insomnia and improve depth and quality of sleep (26)

8. Improve neurotransmitter production and transmission (27) (28)

9. Help restore the activity of key enzymes in the brain (29)

10. May help compensate for genetic deficiencies like ApoE-4 (30)

11. Lower and protect against amyloid-beta associated with damage to neurons (31) (32) (33) (34) (35)

12. Protect microtubular tau and cellular DNA to maintain cell health and enable molecular transport within brain cells (36) (37)


[1]  Ha Z, Zhu Y, Zhang X, et al. The effect of rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2002 Sep;25(9):527-30.

[2] De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):298-307.

[3] Cade WT. Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting. Phys Ther. 2008 Nov;88(11):1322-35

[4] Witte AV, Kerti L, Margulies DS, Floel A. Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults. J Neurosci. 2014 Jun 4;34(23):7862-70.

[5] Appendino G, Belcaro G, Cornelli U, et al. Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):43-9.

[6]  Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):95-105.

[7]  Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine. 2000 Apr;7(2):85-9.

[8] ALC Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1738-44; J Lipid Res. 2004 Apr;45(4):729-35; Metabolism. 1997 Dec;46(12):1454-7; Mech Ageing Dev. 1995 Oct 13;84(2):103-12; Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;959:491-507; Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 26;1486(1):1-17;

[9] ALC Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2010 Jul;10 Suppl 1:S99-106

[10] Klinkhammer P, Szelies B, et al. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia.1990; 1:197-201.

[11] Kato-Kataoka A, et al. “Soybean-derived Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Functions of the Elderly Japanese Subjects with Memory Complaints.” J Clin Biochem Nutr. 47.3 (2010) 246-55.

[12] J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 1;84(2):398-408.

[13] ALC Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Feb;292(2):C670-86

[14] ALC Neurochem Res. 2009 Apr;34(4):755-63; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1876-81; Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 May 14;99(10):7184.

[15] Gehin A, et al. “Glyphosate-induced Antioxidant Imbalance in HaCaT: The Protective Effect of Vitamins C and E.” Environ Toxicol Pharmocol. 22.1 (2006): 27-34.

[16] Galbusera C, et al. “Increased Susceptibility to Plasma Lipid Peroxidation in Alzheimer Disease Patients.” Curr Alzheimer Res. 1.2 (2004): 103-9.

[17] Dairam A, Limson JL, Watkins GM, Antunes E, Daya S. Curcuminoids, curcumin, and demethoxycurcumin reduce lead-induced memory deficits in male Wistar rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 7;55(3):1039-44.

[18] Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Dietary curcumin counteracts the outcome of traumatic brain injury on oxidative stress, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Exp Neurol. 2006 Feb;197(2):309-17.

[19] Zhou P, et al. “Acetyl-L-Carnitine Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Alzheimer-Like Histopathological and Behavioral Abnormalities.” Rejuvenation Res. 14.6 (2011): 669-79.

[20] Diamond BJ, et al. “Ginkgo biloba Extract: Mechanisms and Clinical Indications.” Arch Phys Med Rehab. 81.5 (2000): 668-78.

[21] Baum L, Lam CW, Cheung SK, et al. Six-Month Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Pilot Clinical Trial of Curcumin in Patients with Alzheimer Disease. [In eng] J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 Feb; 28(1): 110-3.

[22] Olsson EM, von Scheele B, Panossian AG. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med. 2009 Feb;75(2):105-12.

[23] Qin YJ, Zeng YS, Zhou CC, Li Y, Zhong ZQ. Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neuron in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Dec;33(23):2842-6.

[24]  Panossian A, Nikoyan N, Ohanyan N, et al. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):84-91.

[25]  PS J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Jul 28;5:11;  180. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42(4):385-8. 

[26]  51. Ha Z, Zhu Y, Zhang X, et al. The effect of rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2002 Sep;25(9):527-30.

[27] Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. "Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks." An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.

[28] Diamond BJ, et al. “Ginkgo biloba Extract: Mechanisms and Clinical Indications.” Arch Phys Med Rehab. 81.5 (2000): 668-78.

[29]  ALC Brain Res. 2005 Nov 9;1061(2):114-7.

[30] Chan A, Paskavitz J, Remington R, Rasmussen S, and Shea TB, Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for early-stage Alzheimer's disease: a 1-year, open-label pilot study with an 16-month caregiver extension. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen, 2008. 23(6): p. 571-85.

[31] ALC J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 1;84(2):398-408.

[32] Cheng F, et al. “Suppression of Amyloid β A11 Antibody Immunoreactivity by Vitamin C: Possible Role Of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides Derived From Glypican-1 By Ascorbate-induced, Nitric Oxide (NO)-catalyzed Degradation.” J Biol Chem, 286.31 (2011): 27559-72

[33] A study published in the November 11, 2008 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry shows that resveratrol, lowers the levels of the amyloid-beta peptides Media release from the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

[34] Zhang L, Fiala M, Cashman J, et al. Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Sep;10(1):1-7.

[35] Yao ZX, et al. “Ginkgo biloba Extract (Egb 761) Inhibits Beta-Amyloid Production by Lowering Free Cholesterol Levels.” J Nutr Biochem. 15.12 (2004): 749-56.

[36]  Chan A, Shea TB. Dietary and genetically-induced oxidative stress alter tau phosphorylation: influence of folate and apolipoprotein E deficiency. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006;9:399-405.

[37] Hinterberger M and Fischer P. “Folate and Alzheimer: when time matters.” J Neural Transm. 2012 May 25